Aiton English

Learning Languages for Life

Business: Porter’s 5 forces

Pre-module work: Use a search engine to familiarize yourself with Porters 5 forces, including advantages and disadvantages of the system

Module work:

Part A: Visualization

1  – think about how you might draw a chart of Porters 5 forces

2 – scroll through the following pages to look at the charts and compare your ideas

first

second

third

use google pictures if you want to find more

3 – draw a final chart (using relevant business jargon you have found)

 

Part B: Case studies

1 – think about your own analysis of Starbucks according to Porter’s 5 forces

2 – RECORD YOURSELF TALKING about it, listen to yourself and think “How did I use business jargon expressions?” / “How did I use signalling words?”

3 -read the text here

https://www.investopedia.com/university/starbucks-porters-5-forces-0/

4 – compare your ideas to the author’s

5 – make notes of your ideas in comparison to the author’s USING some jargon from the text. To increase flexibility, think about your linguistic choice

6 – if possible, before the lesson, send a Telegram / WeChat oral message in which you present the information.

7 – in the lesson present (again)

repeat for either more articles or further down video:

Articles

Coca-Cola:

Apple:

 

Videos

ikea

 

sportswear industry

 

more general ideas and examples

 

 

Translation Glossary / Terms Base Research Project

a – What exactly is a translator glossary (TG)  (also known as term bases (TB) ?

b- What is the difference between a TG / TB, translation memory (TM) and machine translation (MT)?

c – What TG / TB pre-prepared lists are already “out there on the WWW”?

d – What are possible criteria to follow when creating TGs? How much does it depend on the context / the point of view of a translator versus project manager?

e – How can you use / import into / export from TG / TB  popular CAT sites /tools? (for current ones see picture below)

f – What technical problems may arise when trying to import TG/TB?

g – what tools (platforms) exist that cater for independent TG/TB compilation? Which are currently the most popular?

h – What problems can arise once you’ve developed a large personal TG/TB?

 

 

 

 

translation tools

 

 

 

 

TOEFL Speaking Exam: Structure / Advice

THere are 6 parts in the TOEFL speaking. Read the notes / table below, then watch the official videos:

  • Parts 1 / 2 are personal questions. = You need to practice talking about yourself, your likes, experience, preferences, etc.
  • Parts 3 /4 /5 /6 require note-taking ability = so you need to practice taking notes.
  • Parts 3 /4 /5 /6 require reporting what someone says = you need to practice reporting what other people say
  • Parts 3 / 5 are listening to a dialogue about a “problem / issue” at a university. =  You need to practice listening to dialogues of people discussing an issue  / problem
  • Parts 4 / 6 are listening to a lecturer = you need to practice listening to lecturers
  • Parts 3 /4 have a text you need to read = you need to practice skim reading and reacting to texts

Part

Example

Time frame – seconds

Language skill

1

«Talk about a teacher at school you liked”
  • 15 to prepare
  • 45 to speak

Talking about yourself, likes, plans, describing

2

«Do you prefer to study by yourself or with others?”

As part 1

Talking about your preferences

3

«Read the announcement of a university decision”

listen to two students speak”

What doe sthe boy (or girl) think of the announcement?”

  • 45 to read the text
  • listen to a dialogue
  • 30 to prepare
  • 60 to speak

Reading a text

listening and taking notes

reporting someone else’s speech

5

«Listen to two people talking about a problem and giving advice”

What is the situation, what advice should the person choose?”

  • listen to a dialogue
  • 30 to prepare
  • 60 to speak

listening and taking notes

reporting someone else’s speech, giving advice

4

«read the text about ____” “Now listen to a lecturer speak about _____”

The lecturer gives examples of _____. What examples does he / she give?”

  • 45 seconds to read a text
  • listen to a lecture
  • 30 to prepare
  • 60 to speak

listening and taking notes

reporting someone else’s speech

6

Listen to a lecturer speak about _____”

The lecturer gives examples of _____. What examples does he / she give?”

  • listen to a lecture
  • 30 to prepare
  • 60 to speak

listening and taking notes

reporting someone else’s speech

Official video for part 1 /2

 

Official Video for parts 3 / 5

 

Offical video for parts 4 / 6

 

 

 

 

CPE writing 1 – question and four example answers

 

Writing part 1 all together

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

a = 4332

b = 5445

c = 5445

d = 5555

Hours of “Extra” listening practice in 5 steps

The best place to learn English is in an English-speaking country because you are exposed to English a lot and have the chance to use it. You get practice listening in the classroom, and extra practice outside the classroom. In the 21st century you can expose yourself to lots of English in your own country. Everybody knows about it, but not many actually do it.  Below are 5 steps to help you “achieve” this.

1 – get hold of a variety of things to listen to in English. This way you can listen to what you feel like listening to at a particular moment. We spend hours of time “making” ourselves do things when working or studying at university  / school . So listening to English should be a pleasure, and not I DON’T WANT TO LISTEN TO THIS NOW BUT I MUST DO IT TO LEARN ENGLISH pain mentality.  You’re not lazy, you just don’t want more pain than you already have. When choosing think about these guidelines:

a – the more interesting the better: If you like it you will do it. “English for pleasure not pain”

b – the more relevant to your needs the better: If you feel it is useful you will do it. E.g. if you want to improve your speaking with other people, listening to people speaking to other people is more relevant than listening to the news. If you want learn about motivation, then you need lots of motivation speeches.

c – the shorter the better: If the listening is 1-2 minutes, you can listen more times in 5 minutes = easier. If it is only 5 minutes of listening it is also easier to “find time”. People often complain “I don’t have enough time.” This is true if we need to find 60 minutes of complete focus on nothing but English, but we can all find 5 minutes somewhere in the day! If we find 5 minutes 3 times a day, that’s an extra 15 minutes per day,  an extra 30 hours per year.

d – the easier the better: If it is easy, it does not take as much energy = you will want to do it more. Of course, if it is “too easy” / “this is so easy it is wasting my time”, then it is not interesting. So “Easy” but you still feel positive about it. * Easy can be because it is slower, or does not have a lot of new words, or, for example, a movie with subtitles in your language. One example of “Easy” is a movie with subtitles in your language.

 

these are guidelines to think about. They are not 100% rules that ALL have to be followed with EVERYTHING.  Something may be long and difficult, but it is really interesting and relevant, so that’s fine. Use common sense and how you feel.   And remember, the types of things you feel like listening to can change with time or mood!

Examples of a variety of things are: podcasts with short dialogues, songs, TV series, movies, songs, news apps, English learning podcasts, audiobooks, audio fairytales, different youtube channels…

2 – Create “Easy – start” conditions: At the university where I teach, there are lots of machines selling Coca-Cola. If I want a Coke, it’s only a few minutes’ walk away wherever I am in the university.  It’s easy to get a coke.  Do the same with your listening. Make it easy to start. Put this “variety of listenings” on all your devices (phones, tablets, computers). Buy two / three earphones for listening. If you want, buy an mp3 player and put it with earphones in the pocket of a jacket you often wear. When I was doing this in Chinese, I had 3 mp3 players with their own ear-phones in three different jackets.

3 – Plan your “places of practice” :  Below is a table with my “plan” for the next month of “where” I will listen to Chinese / Arabic. Under the table are some more examples of situations:

Place / action

Duration

Listening type *

Plan

At the computer typing low-focus e-mails / blog entries

5 – 120 minutes

Low-focus only *

When I feel like it

Doing the dishes

15 minutes morning / evening

Both low-focus and high-focus*

Each time

Walking to the station

12 minutes

Both

When I feel like it

Walking from the station to university

40 minutes

Both

Each time

Washing the floors

20-60 minutes

Both

When I feel like it

Skiing / running

20-30 minutes

Both

When I feel like it

Tidying up

15 minutes

Both

When I feel like it

Listening type *

This is really important to think about.

* High-focus listening = you feel the need to focus all your attention on the listening. Often this can be a movie you haven’t seen, or a podcast that you will only listen to once.  If you are doing some mental work or may be distracted by other people, then you can’t do high-focus listening.

* Low-focus listening = you can listen for a bit, then stop listening while looking at something else, then come back to listening. For example, as I type this I am listening to a Chinese TV series that I have already watched. If I focus more on my work, I stop listening, but when I focus less on my work, I hear more “bits” of the film. Because I have already watched the TV series, it doesn’t matter that I missed bits of it.

Other “Places of practice”

working out at the gym /  sitting in the train / bus on the way to work / walking my dog /putting on make-up / waiting in a queue in a shop, cafe, post office  / ironing the clothes etc

4 – each day keep a record of the approximate amount of time you spent listening when doing something.  At the end of the week look at

how many minutes you did

where you did the listening

why you didn’t do it where you thought you would

 

then re-write your table.

After a few weeks you will be listening a lot more.

 

5 – As you listen, speak!! More on this later.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Business reading to speak: Accenture 2017 report

THe following is adapted from Accenture’s 2017 annual report (here)

Step 1: Read and fill in the gaps

Accenture’s very strong financial performance in fiscal 2017 reflects the 1)c______________successful execution of our growth strategy—in particular, the 2) r______rotation of our business to new, high-growth areas. We 3) d_________all the objectives in our initial business outlook for the year, driving broad-based revenue growth that 4) s__________ outpaced the market, as well as double-digit growth in earnings per share on an adjusted basis. We also 5 )g___________excellent free cash flow and significantly increased our investments in the business, while 6)  a_______ returning substantial cash to shareholders.

We delivered 7) r_________  net revenues of $34.9 billion, with positive growth across the 8) v _________majority of our industry groups, geographic markets and businesses.

We also reached an 8) i___________________ milestone in fiscal 2017: Net revenues from what we call “the New”—digital, cloud and security services—grew about 30 percent to $18 billion. With our rapid rotation to the New and our 9) h_________ diverse portfolio of business, we successfully executed in an uncertain and 10) i____________ competitive environment and continued driving strong, profitable growth. Our very strong performance in fiscal 2017— on top of our 11) o___________ results for the last two fiscal years—clearly demonstrates that we are executing our growth strategy in a 12) d______ and sustained way. in each of our five businesses and driving synergies across them to deliver 13) ta_________ business outcomes for our clients. We also continue to leverage our 14)u__________ position in the technology ecosystem as the largest independent services provider and the leading partner of many key players. This is why Accenture 15) r________ the partner of choice for so many of the world’s leading companies and largest government agencies. We continue to build strong and 16) e___________ client relationships.  We are 17) e_______ pleased with the leadership positions we have built in digital, cloud and security services. We are in the midst of a technology revolution that is disrupting and transforming businesses and entire industries around the world. In this context, we are working with our clients to apply innovation and intelligence at the 18) h______ of their organizations.

 

 

Step 2: Check your answers below, then build your lexical choice. For each presented “gap”, think of 3 options in your context

 

  1. continued successful execution – continued successful______ x 3
  2. rapid rotation: rapid _______ x3
  3. delivered all the objectives: delivered _______ x3
  4. growth that significantly outpaced the market:   _______ significantly outpaced_______
  5. we generated excellent free cash flow:  we generated excellent _____________
  6. again returning substantial cash to shareholders: substantial ________
  7. record net revenues: record _____
  8. an important milestone: a ________ milestone
  9. the vast majority of:  the vast majority of ____________
  10. highly diverse portfolio: highly diverse ____________
  11. increasingly competitive environment:  increasingly competitive ________
  12. on top of out outstanding results:  outstanding ____
  13. in a durable and sustained way:  durable and sustained _____
  14. deliver tangible business outcomes:  deliver tangible _____
  15. leverage our unmatched position: unmatched _______
  16. Accenture remains the partner of choice: our company remains _______
  17. build strong and enduring relationships: strong and enduring _______
  18. we are especially pleased with:  We are especially pleased with_____
  19. at the heart of their organisations: at the heart of ______

 

Step 3: download and import the attached anki deck from here : make sure you do it third stage active style

 

 

 

 

Business listening to speak: Google 2rd quarter 2017

adapted from Alphabet’s website (https://abc.xyz/investor/)

 

5 steps

Step 1: read through part of the Alphabet 2017 2nd Q results and think of as many possibilities for the gaps.

Let me wrap-1)__. Almost two years after the creation of Alphabet, we see the benefits of our focus within Google and Other Bets and are 2)____with the opportunities we have for 3)_______revenue and earnings growth. We are obviously very happy with the ongoing strength in ads revenue, particularly in Search. Our 4)__________secular trends continue to drive user adoption and engagement with mobile devices. Our engineering and machine learning 5)_______enables us to build better experiences for users and advertisers. We 6)_________to see increasing contributions from our 7)___________non-ads revenue businesses. Play continues to be a strong 8)__________. In addition, we have been making 9)____bets within Google focused on Cloud, Hardware and subscription businesses in YouTube, in order to 10)_______serve customers while also building additional and differentiated revenue streams. These businesses are consistent with, and complementary to, our core capabilities and 11)_________our infrastructure, distribution and engineering. We believe we have a 12)___________runway here. Longer-term, we see great opportunity 13)____the businesses we are building in Other Bets. These businesses reflect the incredible engineering talent 14)______Alphabet — most 15)_______in machine learning.  Our revenue growth and Alphabet structure give us both the opportunity and confidence to invest in our businesses for the long-term. We are doing that, while being very deliberate about the focus, scale and pace of investments and 16)_______committed to being conscientious in our use of all resources. We’re increasing investment in areas where we see the most potential, scaling 17)_____in others and 18)_________our organizational effectiveness to make the 19)_____of the resources available. Thank you and let me now turn the call over to Sundar.

 

Step 2: Watch the video (it starts from the necessary point) to check the actual words used

 

Step 3: check the answers below

  1. let me wrap up
  2. pleased with
  3. sustained (growth)
  4. compelling (trends)
  5. (engineering / machine learning) acumen
  6. we continue to see
  7. growing businesses
  8.  a (strong) contributor (to)
  9. big (bets)
  10. (in order to) better (serve)
  11. (these businesses) leverage (our infrastructure / distribution / engineering)
  12. a compelling (runway)
  13. we see great opportunity in
  14. (incredible talent) across (our company)
  15. most notably
  16. we remain committed to + ING
  17. scale back investment
  18. we’re sharpening our effectiveness
  19. make the most of (resources available)

step 4: broaden your linguistic choice by thinking of variants for each expression: NOTE: not just synonyms, but other possible combinations in the context. THe first 3 have some possibilities, add to them if you can then continue with the rest

 

  1. let me wrap up – let me finish / I’d like to finish by….
  2. we’re pleased with – we’re excited about / .we’re….. (positive emotion)
  3. sustained (growth) -trendous growth / ……. growth/ ….. growth
  4. compelling (trends) – significant trends / ….. trends
  5. (engineering / machine learning) acumen –  business acumen / ….. acumen
  6. we continue to see – we continue to ……. / we continue to….
  7. growing businesses –  ……. businesses / ……… businesses
  8.  a (strong) contributor (to) –  a …. contributor to / a  …… contributor to
  9. big (bets) – ….. bets / …. bets
  10. (in order to) better (serve) –  to better ……..
  11. (these busin esses) leverage (our infrastructure / distribution / engineering) –  to leverage …..  / to leverage ……
  12. a compelling (runway) – a compelling…….. / a compelling……..
  13. we see great opportunity in – we see great …………. in  / we see great……. in
  14. (incredible talent) across (our company) –  ……. across our company / …… across our company
  15. most notably – more precisely  /
  16. we remain committed to + being conscientious – we remain committed to ….. / we remain committed to…..
  17. scale back investment
  18. we’re sharpening our effectiveness
  19. make the most of (resources available)

step 5: listen to / read the whole report. Take out expressions you like, build on them with your existing linguistic choice, use them to talk about your business.

click on the Q2 webcast on the link below to watch, or the transcript to read

https://abc.xyz/investor/

 

Business listening to speak: Google 3rd quarter 2017

Four steps

 

Step 1 – listen to / watch  the report from google

Step 2: Linguistic choice / flexibility:

For each gap below, brainstorm

 

We had a terrific quarter. Revenues  of $27.8 billion 1____ up 24% year-on-year. Advertising  revenues benefitted 2)____ strong performance in Sites, which was powered 3)__ tremendous  results in mobile search. 4)_______ growth in Network revenues was again led by our  programmatic business. We also benefitted from 5)______ growth in Other Revenues from  Cloud, Play and Hardware.    Turning to Alphabet revenues by geography, performance was 6)______ in all regions. U.S.  revenues were $12.9 billion, up 21% year-over-year. EMEA revenues were $9.1 billion, up 23%  year-over-year in both reported and fixed FX terms. APAC revenues were $4.2 billion, up 29%  versus last year, and up 31% in fixed FX terms. Other Americas revenues were $1.5 billion, up  33% year-over-year, and up 32% in fixed FX terms.    On a consolidated basis, total cost of revenues, including TAC, which I’ll discuss in the Google  segment results, were $11.1 billion, up 28% year-on-year. Other cost of revenues on a  consolidated basis was $5.6 billion, up 25% year-over-year, primarily 7)_______ by Google-related  expenses, specifically: costs associated with operating our data centers, including depreciation;  content-acquisition costs, 8)______ for YouTube; and Hardware related costs.    Operating expenses were $8.8 billion, up 11% year-over-year. Headcount at the end of the quarter was  78,101, up 2,495 people from last quarter. As in prior quarters, the 9)____ majority of new hires  were engineers and product managers. In terms of product areas, the most 10)_____ headcount  additions were once again made in Cloud for both technical and sales roles, consistent with the  priority we 11)____ on this business.    Operating income was $7.8 billion, up 35% versus last year and the operating margin was 28%.  Other income and expense was $197 million.

 

Now check:

We had a terrific quarter. Revenues  of $27.8 billion were up 24% year-on-year, and also up 24% in constant currency. Advertising  revenues benefitted from strong performance in Sites, which was powered by tremendous  results in mobile search. Healthy growth in Network revenues was again led by our  programmatic business. We also benefitted from substantial growth in Other Revenues from  Cloud, Play and Hardware.    Our outline for today’s call is: first I’ll review the quarter on a consolidated basis for Alphabet,  focusing on year-over-year changes. Next, I will review results for Google, and then Other Bets.    Finally, I will conclude with our outlook. Sundar will then discuss business and product  highlights for the quarter, after which we will take your questions.     Let me start with a summary of Alphabet’s consolidated financial performance for the quarter.  Total revenues were $27.8 billion, up 24% year-over-year. We realized a positive currency  impact on our revenues year-over-year of $255 million, or $64 million after the impact of our  1  hedging program. Holding currency constant to the prior period, our total revenues grew 24%  year-over-year.      Turning to Alphabet revenues by geography, performance was strong in all regions. U.S.  revenues were $12.9 billion, up 21% year-over-year. EMEA revenues were $9.1 billion, up 23%  year-over-year in both reported and fixed FX terms. APAC revenues were $4.2 billion, up 29%  versus last year, and up 31% in fixed FX terms. Other Americas revenues were $1.5 billion, up  33% year-over-year, and up 32% in fixed FX terms.    On a consolidated basis, total cost of revenues, including TAC, which I’ll discuss in the Google  segment results, were $11.1 billion, up 28% year-on-year. Other cost of revenues on a  consolidated basis was $5.6 billion, up 25% year-over-year, primarily driven by Google-related  expenses, specifically: costs associated with operating our data centers, including depreciation;  content-acquisition costs, primarily for YouTube; and Hardware related costs.    Operating expenses were $8.8 billion, up 11% year-over-year. The year-on-year expense  growth, in part, reflects the change in the timing of our annual equity refresh cycle from the third  quarter to the first quarter of each year. As discussed previously, this change in SBC grant  timing affects the quarterly pace of stock-based compensation in 2017, with elevated  year-on-year expense growth in the first half of the year, but benefits the year-on-year  comparisons for Q3 and Q4.    Stock-based compensation totalled $1.8 billion. Headcount at the end of the quarter was  78,101, up 2,495 people from last quarter. As in prior quarters, the vast majority of new hires  were engineers and product managers. In terms of product areas, the most sizable headcount  additions were once again made in Cloud for both technical and sales roles, consistent with the  priority we place on this business.    Operating income was $7.8 billion, up 35% versus last year and the operating margin was 28%.  Other income and expense was $197 million. We provide more detail on the line items within  OI&E in our earnings press release. Our effective tax rate was 15.6% for the third quarter. Net  income was $6.7 billion and earnings per diluted share were $9.57.

 

Step 3: Skim Read, make a note of expressions:

Click here to skim read through the report, pick out collocations of interest. Try and categorize the language you take out.

Step 4: Practice using the structures to talk about your business

 

 

Business Listening to Speak: Microsoft Anunal report 2017

This is taken and adapted from Miscrosoft’s 2017 annual report. Here is the full report if you’re interested.

Listen – find – practice – use:

Download the audio here: Annual Report Microsoft 2017

1 – listen on repeat to understand

2 – read what you don’t understand

3 – listen on repeat again, pick out structures and go through the 3 stages of activation (repeat and backchain where necessary   / changeparts of the structure / develop according to your life)

 

PROGRESS AND RESULTS – 1

We delivered $90.0 billion in revenue and $22.3 billion in operating income this past fiscal year. Adjusting for restructuring expenses, revenue was $96.7 billion with $29.3 billion in operating income.

We continued to invest in innovation and expand our market opportunities, while maintaining our commitment to shareholder return, which included total cash return of $22.3 billion this year.

Our commercial cloud annualized revenue run rate ended the year exceeding $18.9 billion, up more than 56 percent year-over-year. Our cloud growth puts us on track to reach the goal we set a little over two years ago of $20 billion in commercial cloud annualized revenue run rate in fiscal 2018.

The strength of our results across our reporting segments reflects our accelerating innovation as well as increased customer usage and engagement across our businesses.

PROGRESS AND OUR RESULTS -2 

We prioritized our investments to capture our expanding market opportunities. We are investing for the future with product innovation complemented by new acquisitions and partnerships. We have completed our acquisition of LinkedIn to connect the world’s largest professional network with the world’s leading professional cloud. We are investing to create broader economic benefit and opportunity with our datacenter expansion, bringing Azure to 42 regions globally — more than any other cloud provider. We have the most comprehensive compliance coverage in the industry.

PROGRESS AND OUR RESULTS – 3 

We broadened our offerings to reach new audiences, such as bringing Microsoft Office  to manufacturing. We took collaboration to a new level with Microsoft Teams, which brings people together in a digital hub. We are in the forefront of innovating in mixed reality. We are innovating in gaming with new services such as Mixe. We introduced hundreds of new services, including new cognitive services. We have galvanized the company’s efforts around AI. We inspired new ways for students and teachers to create and learn with Windows 10. And we continued to create new device categories with Windows 10 and Surface, including the new Surface Studio.

PROGRESS AND OUR RESULTS – 4

we’re continually transforming to better serve customers, evolving our sales and marketing approach to galvanize around five core customer solution areas.

Across every industry in every corner of the world, our customers are using Microsoft technologies to radically transform everything from agriculture to manufacturing, and we are only at the beginning.

 

Read for Writing: negative effects of social networks

1 – read the writing question and answer the question: What is the “topic(s)” language”?

 

Some people say that children’s use of social networks, due to the negative effects, should be restricted at home and banned at school.

To what extent do you agree?

 

 

2  – Brainstorm negative effects of networking, particularly on children / teens. Make a note

 

3 – Do the same for positive effects

4 – Look at your notes, what collocations / phrases did you use? Can you think of alternatives to increase your linguistic choice?

5 – skim read the three articles to see which points you brainstormed are made.

article one

article two

article three

 

 

 

 

6 – copy into one document the more “interesting points” on positives and negatives.

7 – highlight collocations / phrases that you would like to activate (either in this essay or another)

8 – Plan your essay:

Read the statement / questions again

Some people say that children’s use of social networks, due to the negative effects, should be restricted at home and banned at school.

To what extent do you agree?

 

  • Do you need to discuss both sides?
  • Do you need to talk about both advantages and disadvantages?

 

Answer:

As always, you just need to answer the question. In this case it is “To what extent do you agree?” So you just need to say…

fully agree / mostly agree/ generally agree / partially agreee/  fully disagree / disagree with some exceptions etc…

Naturally in your essay you will have to talk about the negatives. If you completely agree, then you won’t need to talk about positives very much, if you fully disagree, then you will need to show why common negatives are wrong, while also showing the positive sides to a greater extent.

 

9 –  write your essay

 

10 – read what others have written

 

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