Aiton English

Learning Languages for Life

Business reading to speak: Accenture 2017 report

THe following is adapted from Accenture’s 2017 annual report (here)

Step 1: Read and fill in the gaps

Accenture’s very strong financial performance in fiscal 2017 reflects the 1)c______________successful execution of our growth strategy—in particular, the 2) r______rotation of our business to new, high-growth areas. We 3) d_________all the objectives in our initial business outlook for the year, driving broad-based revenue growth that 4) s__________ outpaced the market, as well as double-digit growth in earnings per share on an adjusted basis. We also 5 )g___________excellent free cash flow and significantly increased our investments in the business, while 6)  a_______ returning substantial cash to shareholders.

We delivered 7) r_________  net revenues of $34.9 billion, with positive growth across the 8) v _________majority of our industry groups, geographic markets and businesses.

We also reached an 8) i___________________ milestone in fiscal 2017: Net revenues from what we call “the New”—digital, cloud and security services—grew about 30 percent to $18 billion. With our rapid rotation to the New and our 9) h_________ diverse portfolio of business, we successfully executed in an uncertain and 10) i____________ competitive environment and continued driving strong, profitable growth. Our very strong performance in fiscal 2017— on top of our 11) o___________ results for the last two fiscal years—clearly demonstrates that we are executing our growth strategy in a 12) d______ and sustained way. in each of our five businesses and driving synergies across them to deliver 13) ta_________ business outcomes for our clients. We also continue to leverage our 14)u__________ position in the technology ecosystem as the largest independent services provider and the leading partner of many key players. This is why Accenture 15) r________ the partner of choice for so many of the world’s leading companies and largest government agencies. We continue to build strong and 16) e___________ client relationships.  We are 17) e_______ pleased with the leadership positions we have built in digital, cloud and security services. We are in the midst of a technology revolution that is disrupting and transforming businesses and entire industries around the world. In this context, we are working with our clients to apply innovation and intelligence at the 18) h______ of their organizations.

 

 

Step 2: Check your answers below, then build your lexical choice. For each presented “gap”, think of 3 options in your context

 

  1. continued successful execution – continued successful______ x 3
  2. rapid rotation: rapid _______ x3
  3. delivered all the objectives: delivered _______ x3
  4. growth that significantly outpaced the market:   _______ significantly outpaced_______
  5. we generated excellent free cash flow:  we generated excellent _____________
  6. again returning substantial cash to shareholders: substantial ________
  7. record net revenues: record _____
  8. an important milestone: a ________ milestone
  9. the vast majority of:  the vast majority of ____________
  10. highly diverse portfolio: highly diverse ____________
  11. increasingly competitive environment:  increasingly competitive ________
  12. on top of out outstanding results:  outstanding ____
  13. in a durable and sustained way:  durable and sustained _____
  14. deliver tangible business outcomes:  deliver tangible _____
  15. leverage our unmatched position: unmatched _______
  16. Accenture remains the partner of choice: our company remains _______
  17. build strong and enduring relationships: strong and enduring _______
  18. we are especially pleased with:  We are especially pleased with_____
  19. at the heart of their organisations: at the heart of ______

 

Step 3: download and import the attached anki deck from here : make sure you do it third stage active style

 

 

 

 

Business listening to speak: Google 2rd quarter 2017

adapted from Alphabet’s website (https://abc.xyz/investor/)

 

5 steps

Step 1: read through part of the Alphabet 2017 2nd Q results and think of as many possibilities for the gaps.

Let me wrap-1)__. Almost two years after the creation of Alphabet, we see the benefits of our focus within Google and Other Bets and are 2)____with the opportunities we have for 3)_______revenue and earnings growth. We are obviously very happy with the ongoing strength in ads revenue, particularly in Search. Our 4)__________secular trends continue to drive user adoption and engagement with mobile devices. Our engineering and machine learning 5)_______enables us to build better experiences for users and advertisers. We 6)_________to see increasing contributions from our 7)___________non-ads revenue businesses. Play continues to be a strong 8)__________. In addition, we have been making 9)____bets within Google focused on Cloud, Hardware and subscription businesses in YouTube, in order to 10)_______serve customers while also building additional and differentiated revenue streams. These businesses are consistent with, and complementary to, our core capabilities and 11)_________our infrastructure, distribution and engineering. We believe we have a 12)___________runway here. Longer-term, we see great opportunity 13)____the businesses we are building in Other Bets. These businesses reflect the incredible engineering talent 14)______Alphabet — most 15)_______in machine learning.  Our revenue growth and Alphabet structure give us both the opportunity and confidence to invest in our businesses for the long-term. We are doing that, while being very deliberate about the focus, scale and pace of investments and 16)_______committed to being conscientious in our use of all resources. We’re increasing investment in areas where we see the most potential, scaling 17)_____in others and 18)_________our organizational effectiveness to make the 19)_____of the resources available. Thank you and let me now turn the call over to Sundar.

 

Step 2: Watch the video (it starts from the necessary point) to check the actual words used

 

Step 3: check the answers below

  1. let me wrap up
  2. pleased with
  3. sustained (growth)
  4. compelling (trends)
  5. (engineering / machine learning) acumen
  6. we continue to see
  7. growing businesses
  8.  a (strong) contributor (to)
  9. big (bets)
  10. (in order to) better (serve)
  11. (these businesses) leverage (our infrastructure / distribution / engineering)
  12. a compelling (runway)
  13. we see great opportunity in
  14. (incredible talent) across (our company)
  15. most notably
  16. we remain committed to + ING
  17. scale back investment
  18. we’re sharpening our effectiveness
  19. make the most of (resources available)

step 4: broaden your linguistic choice by thinking of variants for each expression: NOTE: not just synonyms, but other possible combinations in the context. THe first 3 have some possibilities, add to them if you can then continue with the rest

 

  1. let me wrap up – let me finish / I’d like to finish by….
  2. we’re pleased with – we’re excited about / .we’re….. (positive emotion)
  3. sustained (growth) -trendous growth / ……. growth/ ….. growth
  4. compelling (trends) – significant trends / ….. trends
  5. (engineering / machine learning) acumen –  business acumen / ….. acumen
  6. we continue to see – we continue to ……. / we continue to….
  7. growing businesses –  ……. businesses / ……… businesses
  8.  a (strong) contributor (to) –  a …. contributor to / a  …… contributor to
  9. big (bets) – ….. bets / …. bets
  10. (in order to) better (serve) –  to better ……..
  11. (these busin esses) leverage (our infrastructure / distribution / engineering) –  to leverage …..  / to leverage ……
  12. a compelling (runway) – a compelling…….. / a compelling……..
  13. we see great opportunity in – we see great …………. in  / we see great……. in
  14. (incredible talent) across (our company) –  ……. across our company / …… across our company
  15. most notably – more precisely  /
  16. we remain committed to + being conscientious – we remain committed to ….. / we remain committed to…..
  17. scale back investment
  18. we’re sharpening our effectiveness
  19. make the most of (resources available)

step 5: listen to / read the whole report. Take out expressions you like, build on them with your existing linguistic choice, use them to talk about your business.

click on the Q2 webcast on the link below to watch, or the transcript to read

https://abc.xyz/investor/

 

Business listening to speak: Google 3rd quarter 2017

Four steps

 

Step 1 – listen to / watch  the report from google

Step 2: Linguistic choice / flexibility:

For each gap below, brainstorm

 

We had a terrific quarter. Revenues  of $27.8 billion 1____ up 24% year-on-year. Advertising  revenues benefitted 2)____ strong performance in Sites, which was powered 3)__ tremendous  results in mobile search. 4)_______ growth in Network revenues was again led by our  programmatic business. We also benefitted from 5)______ growth in Other Revenues from  Cloud, Play and Hardware.    Turning to Alphabet revenues by geography, performance was 6)______ in all regions. U.S.  revenues were $12.9 billion, up 21% year-over-year. EMEA revenues were $9.1 billion, up 23%  year-over-year in both reported and fixed FX terms. APAC revenues were $4.2 billion, up 29%  versus last year, and up 31% in fixed FX terms. Other Americas revenues were $1.5 billion, up  33% year-over-year, and up 32% in fixed FX terms.    On a consolidated basis, total cost of revenues, including TAC, which I’ll discuss in the Google  segment results, were $11.1 billion, up 28% year-on-year. Other cost of revenues on a  consolidated basis was $5.6 billion, up 25% year-over-year, primarily 7)_______ by Google-related  expenses, specifically: costs associated with operating our data centers, including depreciation;  content-acquisition costs, 8)______ for YouTube; and Hardware related costs.    Operating expenses were $8.8 billion, up 11% year-over-year. Headcount at the end of the quarter was  78,101, up 2,495 people from last quarter. As in prior quarters, the 9)____ majority of new hires  were engineers and product managers. In terms of product areas, the most 10)_____ headcount  additions were once again made in Cloud for both technical and sales roles, consistent with the  priority we 11)____ on this business.    Operating income was $7.8 billion, up 35% versus last year and the operating margin was 28%.  Other income and expense was $197 million.

 

Now check:

We had a terrific quarter. Revenues  of $27.8 billion were up 24% year-on-year, and also up 24% in constant currency. Advertising  revenues benefitted from strong performance in Sites, which was powered by tremendous  results in mobile search. Healthy growth in Network revenues was again led by our  programmatic business. We also benefitted from substantial growth in Other Revenues from  Cloud, Play and Hardware.    Our outline for today’s call is: first I’ll review the quarter on a consolidated basis for Alphabet,  focusing on year-over-year changes. Next, I will review results for Google, and then Other Bets.    Finally, I will conclude with our outlook. Sundar will then discuss business and product  highlights for the quarter, after which we will take your questions.     Let me start with a summary of Alphabet’s consolidated financial performance for the quarter.  Total revenues were $27.8 billion, up 24% year-over-year. We realized a positive currency  impact on our revenues year-over-year of $255 million, or $64 million after the impact of our  1  hedging program. Holding currency constant to the prior period, our total revenues grew 24%  year-over-year.      Turning to Alphabet revenues by geography, performance was strong in all regions. U.S.  revenues were $12.9 billion, up 21% year-over-year. EMEA revenues were $9.1 billion, up 23%  year-over-year in both reported and fixed FX terms. APAC revenues were $4.2 billion, up 29%  versus last year, and up 31% in fixed FX terms. Other Americas revenues were $1.5 billion, up  33% year-over-year, and up 32% in fixed FX terms.    On a consolidated basis, total cost of revenues, including TAC, which I’ll discuss in the Google  segment results, were $11.1 billion, up 28% year-on-year. Other cost of revenues on a  consolidated basis was $5.6 billion, up 25% year-over-year, primarily driven by Google-related  expenses, specifically: costs associated with operating our data centers, including depreciation;  content-acquisition costs, primarily for YouTube; and Hardware related costs.    Operating expenses were $8.8 billion, up 11% year-over-year. The year-on-year expense  growth, in part, reflects the change in the timing of our annual equity refresh cycle from the third  quarter to the first quarter of each year. As discussed previously, this change in SBC grant  timing affects the quarterly pace of stock-based compensation in 2017, with elevated  year-on-year expense growth in the first half of the year, but benefits the year-on-year  comparisons for Q3 and Q4.    Stock-based compensation totalled $1.8 billion. Headcount at the end of the quarter was  78,101, up 2,495 people from last quarter. As in prior quarters, the vast majority of new hires  were engineers and product managers. In terms of product areas, the most sizable headcount  additions were once again made in Cloud for both technical and sales roles, consistent with the  priority we place on this business.    Operating income was $7.8 billion, up 35% versus last year and the operating margin was 28%.  Other income and expense was $197 million. We provide more detail on the line items within  OI&E in our earnings press release. Our effective tax rate was 15.6% for the third quarter. Net  income was $6.7 billion and earnings per diluted share were $9.57.

 

Step 3: Skim Read, make a note of expressions:

Click here to skim read through the report, pick out collocations of interest. Try and categorize the language you take out.

Step 4: Practice using the structures to talk about your business

 

 

Business Listening to Speak: Microsoft Anunal report 2017

This is taken and adapted from Miscrosoft’s 2017 annual report. Here is the full report if you’re interested.

Listen – find – practice – use:

Download the audio here: Annual Report Microsoft 2017

1 – listen on repeat to understand

2 – read what you don’t understand

3 – listen on repeat again, pick out structures and go through the 3 stages of activation (repeat and backchain where necessary   / changeparts of the structure / develop according to your life)

 

PROGRESS AND RESULTS – 1

We delivered $90.0 billion in revenue and $22.3 billion in operating income this past fiscal year. Adjusting for restructuring expenses, revenue was $96.7 billion with $29.3 billion in operating income.

We continued to invest in innovation and expand our market opportunities, while maintaining our commitment to shareholder return, which included total cash return of $22.3 billion this year.

Our commercial cloud annualized revenue run rate ended the year exceeding $18.9 billion, up more than 56 percent year-over-year. Our cloud growth puts us on track to reach the goal we set a little over two years ago of $20 billion in commercial cloud annualized revenue run rate in fiscal 2018.

The strength of our results across our reporting segments reflects our accelerating innovation as well as increased customer usage and engagement across our businesses.

PROGRESS AND OUR RESULTS -2 

We prioritized our investments to capture our expanding market opportunities. We are investing for the future with product innovation complemented by new acquisitions and partnerships. We have completed our acquisition of LinkedIn to connect the world’s largest professional network with the world’s leading professional cloud. We are investing to create broader economic benefit and opportunity with our datacenter expansion, bringing Azure to 42 regions globally — more than any other cloud provider. We have the most comprehensive compliance coverage in the industry.

PROGRESS AND OUR RESULTS – 3 

We broadened our offerings to reach new audiences, such as bringing Microsoft Office  to manufacturing. We took collaboration to a new level with Microsoft Teams, which brings people together in a digital hub. We are in the forefront of innovating in mixed reality. We are innovating in gaming with new services such as Mixe. We introduced hundreds of new services, including new cognitive services. We have galvanized the company’s efforts around AI. We inspired new ways for students and teachers to create and learn with Windows 10. And we continued to create new device categories with Windows 10 and Surface, including the new Surface Studio.

PROGRESS AND OUR RESULTS – 4

we’re continually transforming to better serve customers, evolving our sales and marketing approach to galvanize around five core customer solution areas.

Across every industry in every corner of the world, our customers are using Microsoft technologies to radically transform everything from agriculture to manufacturing, and we are only at the beginning.

 

Read for Writing: negative effects of social networks

1 – read the writing question and answer the question: What is the “topic(s)” language”?

 

Some people say that children’s use of social networks, due to the negative effects, should be restricted at home and banned at school.

To what extent do you agree?

 

 

2  – Brainstorm negative effects of networking, particularly on children / teens. Make a note

 

3 – Do the same for positive effects

4 – Look at your notes, what collocations / phrases did you use? Can you think of alternatives to increase your linguistic choice?

5 – skim read the three articles to see which points you brainstormed are made.

article one

article two

article three

 

 

 

 

6 – copy into one document the more “interesting points” on positives and negatives.

7 – highlight collocations / phrases that you would like to activate (either in this essay or another)

8 – Plan your essay:

Read the statement / questions again

Some people say that children’s use of social networks, due to the negative effects, should be restricted at home and banned at school.

To what extent do you agree?

 

  • Do you need to discuss both sides?
  • Do you need to talk about both advantages and disadvantages?

 

Answer:

As always, you just need to answer the question. In this case it is “To what extent do you agree?” So you just need to say…

fully agree / mostly agree/ generally agree / partially agreee/  fully disagree / disagree with some exceptions etc…

Naturally in your essay you will have to talk about the negatives. If you completely agree, then you won’t need to talk about positives very much, if you fully disagree, then you will need to show why common negatives are wrong, while also showing the positive sides to a greater extent.

 

9 –  write your essay

 

10 – read what others have written

 

Homelessness: Canada / Australia

Pre-reading

Before reading the following article from CBCnews guess your answer to the question below, then read to see if you were right:

 

What are the reasons for the jump in the amount of homeless people in Vancouver?

What does the local government plan to do?

 

Reading

Homeless count finds housing affordability crisis driving numbers up

Half of people surveyed said lack of income and lack of affordable housing main reason for plight

 

Housing costs and a lack of income are driving up the numbers of Lower Mainland homeless, 22 per cent of whom were employed full or part-time, according to the latest count conducted by Metro Vancouver.

The report issued Tuesday said the takeaway from this year’s homeless count is the need for more affordable housing.

About half of the people surveyed said housing costs and a lack of income were the main reasons they slept on the street or in shelters.

“In order to stem growing homelessness, it is clear we need more affordable housing options,” Port Moody Mayor Mike Clay, the chair of the region’s housing committee, said in a statement.

 

More seniors, fewer youths

About half the people surveyed had lived in the region 10 years or more before becoming homeless.

Vancouver, Surrey and Langley were the three cities with the most homeless people.

The report found 82 per cent of those surveyed had at least one health condition.

 

Aboriginal homelessness ‘troubling’

A finding 34 per cent of the homeless people surveyed were Aboriginal, an increase of 28 per cent from 2014, was called “troubling” by the authors of a separate report released Monday.

Aboriginal people only account for 2.5 per cent of Metro Vancouver’s total population.

“The enduring effects of colonization, the legacy of the residential school system and the impact of child welfare and the foster care system continue to impact the daily experience of many Aboriginal Peoples and families and directly contribute to the high incidence of Aboriginal homelessness,” the report read.

“The bottom line shows that Aboriginal peoples are 18 times more likely to be homeless in Metro Vancouver than the mainstream population.”

 

Read through the article again

  1. highlight 4-6 points of interest. In those points, underline some key collocations.
  2. re-tell in class the key points of interest for discussion

 

Extra

 

Read through the next article, from the Dail Telegraph (Australia), guess as many options as you can for the missing words

 

Homelessness is an increasingly 1)________problem in Sydney, especially in the inner city where it’s hard to miss the growing number of beggars, rough sleepers and people doing it tough on the streets. It’s a confronting, distressing sight.

Most of us are guilty at some stage of turning a blind eye to this suffering, writing it 2)______as a hopeless affair that can’t be solved. But that is simply not true. Sure, there is no magic 3)_______to solve homelessness, it’s a complex issue with complex causes, but there is one fundamental issue helping to perpetuate the cycle: a lack of affordable housing.

For decades, Australia has failed to meet the housing needs of our lowest income residents and nowhere is that more obvious than in Sydney. Housing affordability is at an all-time low and rents are skyrocketing, 4)_________more low and middle income earners at risk of homelessness than ever before. A single person on minimum wage can now pay up to 68 per cent of their income to rent a one-bedroom flat. Low income households earning $500 a week can pay up to 85 per cent of their income on rent. Many households are 5)___________just one unexpected expense away from disaster.

“In order to 6)___________homelessness we really need to have some affordable housing,” Homelessness NSW CEO Katherine McKernan says. “Crisis services are experiencing 7)__________demand but there’s simply nowhere to refer people into long-term accommodation.

“So there’s blockages occurring, which is why there’s an increase in rough sleeping because people simply aren’t able to access services.”

 

There’s nothing humane about sleeping on the street, it is never, ever a choice. Community attitudes, however, tend to 8)________some blame on the person experiencing it. A public perception survey by Homelessness Australia in 2014 found most people believed bad decision making, mental illness and substance abuse were the major causes of homelessness. The reality was that housing affordability, financial difficulties and family violence were much 9)_______drivers.

 

While the NSW Government has invested $22 million in additional private rental subsidies to provide access to housing for young people, women and children escaping violence, it doesn’t address 10)______________ issues like rental market affordability. It won’t address the 11)___________social housing waiting list nor the current high demand for homelessness services. And ultimately it boosts the coffers of private rental landlords rather than addressing the 11)___________issues contributing 12)_____high rents in Sydney, and the lack of affordable housing in general.

There is 13)__________evidence that a ‘housing first approach’ can reduce the risk and break the cycle of homelessness. That’s because when people have a roof over their heads with adequate support services, they’re more likely to get their life back on track.

“If you provide long-term accommodation with support, people will stay housed, they won’t fall back into homelessness,” McKernan says.

A Sydney housing forum was told last week that another 100,000 affordable homes must be made available in NSW over the next two decades to reduce housing stress and the risk of homelessness. That means 14)__________policies such as inclusionary zoning to ensure a percentage of new developments are affordable housing. That means developing innovative financial models to support more affordable housing.

An increase of supply won’t solve all of Sydney’s housing 15)_______but it will have a significant impact.

All it requires is the political will to create a city where everyone has access to housing, where everyone counts.

 

Click on the link here to find the answers, I also recommend reading the comments to the side of the article

 

 

 

Corpus Linguistics online: Introduction

6 step introduction to using online corpus material:

 

Step 1: 2 minutes

Go to the link below and have a look at the list (don’t start playing yet!) of corpus available on the site.

https://corpus.byu.edu/

 

Step 2: 10 mins

(or more if you enjoy exploring / experimenting yourself, if not, go to step 3,4)

Go into the COCA one on the link below and “have a play” with it to familiarize yourself with the layout.

https://corpus.byu.edu/coca/

 

Step 3: 5 mins

If you like it register in order to keep using it, if not, have fun doing something else!!!

Step 4: 5-10 mins

Start watching any videos you want on the Internet OR watch this video then have a go yourself

Step 5 : 10 -20minutes

Again, feel free to start watching any video you like OR watch and do yourself with the following video

 

Step 6: 10-20 mins

 

 

 

Canadian view on Russia – US election scandal

Pre-reading

Before reading the following article from the Toronto Star guess your answer to the question below, then read to see if you were right:

 

Which countries will the author critcise: Russia, China, America, Saudi Arabia, Canada?

Reading

Why is Vladimir Putin’s Russia seen as uniquely evil?

The question comes to mind again following former U.S. national security advisor Michael Flynn’s decision to plead guilty to charges of lying to the FBI about his conversations in late 2016 with Russia’s then ambassador to Washington.

So far, most reportage has concentrated on the effect this will have on U.S. President Donald Trump,

But I’m stuck on a prior question: Why did Flynn feel it necessary to lie in the first place? What was wrong with someone sure to be a key member of the new administration talking to an important foreign ambassador?

Technically, Flynn could have been charged under a 1799 law aimed at preventing private citizens from discussing matters of state with foreign entities. But it’s a law that, for obvious reasons, has never been used.

I expect Flynn wouldn’t have bothered lying to the FBI about conversations with, say, the Canadian ambassador on matters of mutual interest. But, in this climate, talking to the Russians was simply one step too far.

The ostensible reason is the widely held belief that Russian hackers working under Putin’s orders undermined the 2016 U.S. presidential election. The unspoken corollary is that Putin is responsible for Trump’s victory. The reigning conspiracy theory is that Trump and/or his minions colluded with Putin to bring this about.

All of this is possible. Sometimes there are conspiracies.

The simpler explanation, however, is that Trump won because his brand of right-wing populism worked particularly well in the complicated U.S. electoral college system and because his opponent, Hillary Clinton, ran a terrible campaign.

But the conspiracy theory fits the popular Western notion of Putin as evil genius.

I’m not sure why this notion holds. It is true that Russian elections are stacked. But as long-time political operative Donna Brazile has pointed out in a recent book, so is the U.S. Democratic Party’s nomination process.

At least the Russians do have elections, a nicety that the Saudis, say, don’t bother with.

Putin is justly criticized for unilaterally annexing Crimea to Russia. Yet no Western government berates China for its unilateral annexation of Tibet in 1950.

Beijing’s argument that Tibet is historically part of China is accepted. Putin’s argument that Crimea is historically part of Russia is not.

Canada, for instance, has imposed economic sanctions against figures around Putin for their gross violation of human rights. It has done nothing against Chinese rights violators close to Xi.

Some of the reasons for this double standard are economic. China is the world’s second-largest economy. Western business people want a piece of the action.

To that end, Prime Minister Justin Trudeau’s trip to China thus week is focused on trade and investment. Don’t expect sunny Trudeau to dwell on downers such as Xi’s human rights record.

Other reasons for the double standard are geopolitical. Following the collapse of the Soviet Union, the West became accustomed to a diminished Russia. To see it reasserting itself today in its traditional spheres of influence — Eastern Europe, the Middle East, the Baltic states, Central Asia — is disconcerting.

China is also reasserting itself, particularly in the South China Sea. But that has given rise to little popular alarm in the West.

Which brings me back to Michael Flynn and America’s current fascination with the Russian threat. The notion of Trump as Putin’s malleable tool has the eerily familiar ring of Cold War paranoia. And it is equally improbable.

 

(article is adapted from here)

Read through the article again

  1. highlight 4-6 points of interest. In those points, underline some key collocations.
  2. re-tell in class the key points of interest for discussion

 

 

Ru-En translation problem : Отказаться от

Have a go at translating the following without assistance, then check the internet to find options. There may be more than one (ortwo, or three) option for each. If so, what is the difference between the options

  1. отказаться от приглашения
  2. вам придётся отказаться от мысли увидеться с ним
  3. он полностью отказался от своих слов
  4. отказаться от всех претензий
  5. отказаться от выполнения договора
  6. отказаться от иска
  7. отказаться от комментариев
  8. отказаться от обещания
  9. отказаться от показаний
  10. отказаться от предложения x2
  11. отказаться от права на помощь адвоката

 

Speaking Grammar: Show you have experience

Being a teacher of English, I can say that I know a lot about grammar. And, having taught English for 15 years, I know 100% for sure that different people can use different structures when giving presentations. As someone who has seen hundreds of presentations, I’m convinced that this is connected with the fact that some people, when giving a presentation, need to use grammar structures to prove they have experience / have knoweldge. Other people do not.

For example, I used three in this text:

Being a teacher of English, I can say that….

Having taught English for 15 years, I know 100% for sure that

As someone who has seen hundreds of presentations, I’m convinced that

I used these expressions to show you, the reader, that you should listen to me because I have experience  / knowledge about this. If you do not know me, you may not think my opinion about a topic is important. So I use the above structures.

However, if you know about me, then I may not need to use these structures to show you should trust me. You already know and trust me.

 

For example, if Bill Gates gives a speech about the computer industry

 

 

does he need to say:

“Being the founder of Microsoft, I know that it takes a lot of time to create an international company.”

The answer is .. not really. He might say it, but most people know who Bill Gates is, and what he has done, so he can just say…

“I know that it takes a lot of time to create an international company.”

and we will accept this.

 

However, if you do not know the experience level of the person, then using the structures like “Being a …., ” / “Having …… ” / “As a…” can help. For example;

“Being a mother of 6 children, I know that it can be difficult to raise a child.”  = greater expert than just “I know that it can be difficult to raise a child.”

To improve your ability to use these structures when speaking:

Step 1

Click on the link here to read more examples

Step 2

 

Fill in the last column of the table yourself and send it to your teacher for correction

Step 3

Make a video / recording in which you ask yourself some questions, and then answer the questions using the structures.

Some example questions are:

What advice would you give to someone who… (wants to get a better job, wants to choose a university, has difficulty eating well, wants their children to play the computer less…)

How important …(are subjects like history, are universities when it comes to getting a good job, are zoos for educating children about animals, is it for the government to improve public transport)

What are the advantages and disadvantages of  .. (traveling overseas on holiday, playing team sports, living in a cold climate, having brothers and sisters, working in a small company)

 

 

 

 

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